Reference code(s): GB 0074 CLC/B/207/CH01
Held at: London Metropolitan Archives
Title: CHARTERED BANK OF INDIA, AUSTRALIA AND CHINA: CORPORATE
Level of description: sub-fonds
Extent: 3.73 linear metres
Name of creator(s): Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China | Chartered Bank
The Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China, known from 1956 as The Chartered Bank, was established by Royal Charter in 1853. It was an overseas exchange bank, based in and controlled from the City of London. It was established to take advantage of the end of the East India Company's monopoly in 1853.
The bank operated in India and throughout the Far East - in China, Hong Kong, Vietnam, Cambodia, Siam [Thailand], Burma [Myanmar], Singapore, Malacca, Penang and the Malay States, the Philippines, Japan, Java, Sumatra, Ceylon [Sri Lanka], North Borneo, Brunei, Sarawak, Pakistan and East Pakistan. There were also branches in New York [United States of America] and Hamburg [Germany]. Despite its name, the bank never operated in Australia.
Further UK branches opened in Manchester (1937) and Liverpool (1948). The bank gained a second London office and additional branches in India, Pakistan, China and Ceylon with the takeover in 1938 of the P and O Banking Corporation Limited.
The bank's activities in the Far East were severely disrupted by World War Two and nationalist post-war governments in the region. The takeover in 1957 of rival Eastern Bank Limited presented new opportunities. Eastern Bank was active in Chartered Bank's traditional areas of operation, but also had branches in the Middle East - in Iraq, Bahrain, Yemen, Lebanon, Qatar, Sharjah, Abu Dhabi, Dubai and Oman. In the same year, Chartered Bank purchased the Ionian Bank's interests in Cyprus.
The bank operated from various City of London addresses: 1852 first two meetings of directors at 8 Austin Friars; November 1852 offices acquired at 21 Moorgate. December 1853-1855 rented offices at South Sea House, Threadneedle Street. 1855 rented offices at 34 Gresham House, Old Broad Street. June 1857-1866 rented offices in the City Bank building at Threadneedle Street. 1867 Former Hatton Court building on Threadneedle Street. In 1909 they moved into newly built premises on the former site of Crosby Hall where they were still at the time of the merger with Standard Bank in 1969 to form Standard Chartered Bank.
The Chartered Bank's operations were governed by the original charter and deed of settlement and the subsequent revisions and renewals of these documents. The bank, which due to the charter operated with a limited liability (a priviledge not open to shareholders of an ordinary joint stock bank until 1858) was was led by a board of directors, elected by the shareholders and themselves shareholders who were based in London and who directed operations via managers, accountants and inspectors who were employed in the overseas branch and agency network.
Scope and content/abstract:
Records of the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China, later known as the Chartered Bank. Records date from 1851, just prior to the foundation of the bank in 1853 and include reference to the operation and management of the business covering both branches, agencies and head office. There is information relating to premises and staff, inspection of branches and customer accounts, some records of legal actions as well as general administrative records created and maintained by the secretaries and general managers.
Highlights include records relating to the bank during times of War, from accounts of local rebellions and riots through to the Second World War which saw two thirds of the banks' branches occupied by the Japanese and over 100 of the banks' European officers interned. There is a series of letters within the records of the Secretary and a number of personal reminiscences recounting the courageous actions of trustworthy staff members trying to salvage bank records from being seized by the Japanese, from those in internment camps and accounts of conditions in occupied countries (CLC/B/207/CH03/01/07) and a register of employees interned in prisoner of war camps or killed during enemy action (CLC/B/207/CH08/01/004).
There is a series of posterity files (CLC/B/207/CH03/01/09-13) consisting of over 1,300 documents which were retained by the Secretary as a research resource and for historical interest covering a remarkable range of subjects such as legal wrangles and reports on trading conditions in particular countries reflecting how the bank was responsive to early economic development and new trade when seeking to expand its network of branches.
The 'Realms of Silver' centenary publication research files are a valuable source on the history of the bank (CLC/B/207/CH03/01/14-17) covering a range of topics such as key commodities in particular areas, they show staff enduring disease, plague, famine and drought, rebellion and revolution, earthquakes, floods and fire and highlight how the activities of the Bank have touched upon events of world history as well as of local development, often reflecting creative solutions that the bank employed to overcome such problems and tribulations.
There is an extensive collection of premises records (CLC/B/207/CH09) including plans of the branches and often subsequent upgrades and developments of branches and agencies in response to growing business needs. There are also photographs which show not only bank premises but also create a pictorial history reflecting the international operations of the Chartered Bank as well as showing local flora, fauna and methods of trade, for example, in Cebu the use of buffalo to move hemp and in Burma the use of elephants in the emerging logging trade. They also reflect local tragedies such as the effects of the Yokohama Earthquake in Japan in 1923 (CLC/B/207/CH09/08; CLC/B/207/CH08/04; CLC/B/207/CH03/01/16).
There is an extensive series of records relating to accounts and financial matters (CLC/B/207/CH04), including general ledgers; a comprehensive series of half yearly balance sheets from branches and records of the Taxation and Statistics Department (which appears to have fallen under the auspices of the Chief Accountant.
There are also records relating to staff (CLC/B/207/CH08), which give details on the bank's application and registration process, and progress and activities of named staff when they took up their posts. These records include registers of staff (1874-1920), some staff applications and employment agreements (1900-1930) and an extensive series of half-yearly schedules of staff in overseas branches (1863-1960).
This sub-fonds includes printed copies of the 1853 charter and later supplemental and consolidating charters and an index to charters along with bye laws, rules and original and copy deeds of settlement and adhesion. There are also registers of directors and registers of documents sealed giving details of all documents sealed by the company seal and the signatures of directors authorising its use. In addition there are records relating to the ordinary and extraordinary annual meetings of directors and shareholders.
ACCESS AND USE
Language/scripts of material: English
System of arrangement:
These records are arranged as follows:
CLC/B/207/CH01/03 Annual General Meetings
CLC/B/207/CH01/04 Registers of directors
CLC/B/207/CH01/05 Registers of documents sealed
Conditions governing access:
These records are available for public inspection, although records containing personal information are subject to access restrictions under the UK Data Protection Act, 1998.
48 hours notice required for access.
PLEASE NOTE: Permission to access records less than 45 years old should be sought from the depositor.
Conditions governing reproduction:
Copyright is held by the depositor.
Please see online catalogues at: http://search.lma.gov.uk/opac_lma/index.htm
Immediate source of acquisition:
The bank's archives were deposited in the Manuscripts Section of Guildhall Library in 1989 and after. The Guildhall Library Manuscripts Section merged with the London Metropolitan Archives in 2009.
Further records relating to the foundation of the bank can be found in CLC/B/207/CH03/01/08; In the series of posterity files CLC/B/207/CH03/01/09-13 and in the 'Realms of Silver' research files CLC/B/207/CH03/01/14-17.
For further information on the history of the bank see Sir Compton Mackenzie, "Realms of silver: one hundred years of banking in the East" (London, 1954) and Geoffrey Jones, "British multinational banking 1830-1990" (Oxford, 1993).
Rules or conventions: Compiled in compliance with General International Standard Archival Description, ISAD(G), second edition, 2000; National Council on Archives Rules for the Construction of Personal, Place and Corporate Names, 1997.
Date(s) of descriptions: Added January 2014