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Toyne Carter & Co

Identity Statement

Reference code(s): GB 0064 XX(63027.1)
Held at: National Maritime Museum
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Full title: Toyne Carter & Co
Date(s): [1896-1973]
Level of description: Collection
Extent: 80ft: 24m
Name of creator(s): Toyne Carter & Co


Administrative/Biographical history:

The Fowey shipbroking firm of Toyne Carter and Co was founded in 1896 when J P Carter (1872-1957), of Coppack, Carter and Co, Connah's Quay, joined in partnership with C L Toyne (c 1870-1921), who had become established in business in the port some time earlier. Before long the firm became one of the principal shipbrokers and agents in Fowey, a position which resulted from the partners' involvement with the china clay shippers in and around nearby St Austell. The export of china clay in the early days was handled through the liner ports, local merchants selling in small amounts which would then be held until there was sufficient to make up a coaster cargo. It would then be shipped in casks to Liverpool for outward shipment. Toyne Carter and Co ran an office in Liverpool for several years for this reason, but subsequently arrangements were made to charter ships to carry china clay directly from Fowey. The first shipment in what became known as the 'Clay Line' left Fowey harbour for the United States in 1904. With the growth in the demand for china clay, more and larger ships were arriving to load for destinations all over the world; some, like those of the Holland Steamship Company and the Glynn Line, on a regular basis, and with these the company forged particularly strong links.

The company owned ships on several occasions, both steam and sail, most notably the three-masted schooner A B Sherman. A war prize, she was acquired by the firm in 1918 in poor condition, restored at great expense and returned to service in 1921, when the post-war boom had passed its peak. With freight rates down and cargoes difficult to find, the A B Sherman traded under the company's flag for only a short period. The consequence of this episode, which came close to bankrupting the company, was its change into a limited liability company in 1921. It remained one until 1968, reverting back into a partnership then. In 1977 Toyne Carter & Co was acquired by English Clays Lovering Pochin and Co Ltd, St Austell.


Scope and content/abstract:

Records of Toyne Carter and Co comprising register of shareholders and Directors' minute books, 1921 to 1958; balance sheets and profit and loss accounts, 1924 to 1975; cash books, ledgers and journals, 1896 to 1968; wages and salaries books, 1944 to 1971, and a broker's commission book, 1951 to 1972. The bulk of the collection relates to the china clay trade, including a volume listing cargoes to the United States, via Liverpool, 1899 to 1903, and direct from Fowey, 1904 to 1952, together with detailed accounts of the same, 1926 to 1935, and 1966 to 1973; cargo manifests, 1931 to 1961; and Bills of Lading, 1958 to 1967.

There are also accounts of shipments to Holland, 1925 to 1972; to Italy and the Mediterranean, 1924 to 1939 and 1948 to 1959, together with details of cargoes lifted by 'general' ships, 1922 to 1970. There is a small amount of correspondence, numerous loose papers, cables, invoices, vouchers and receipts, chartering circulars, 1926 to 1928; chartering records, 1925 to 1934; Charter Parties, 1929 to 1935 and 1947 to 1972; details of ships cleared through customs, 1939 to 1971; a continuous series of disbursement books of ships whilst loading at Fowey, 1909 to 1970; and a large number of cargo plans demonstrating the care which was needed to stow china clay. In 1947 the company took a controlling interest in the Fowey Tug Company, and the collection contains balance sheets and profit and loss accounts, account books, towage rates and tonnage sheets for this undertaking, 1947 to 1960. At different times, members of the company held appointment as Vice-Consul to several European countries, and surviving records of this office include German Seals of Appointment, 1896 to 1926. Tape recordings of conversations with one of the firm's employees and with D R Carter (1901- ), son of one of the founders, who joined the business in 1919, complete the collection.

Access & Use

Language/scripts of material:

System of arrangement:

Conditions governing access:

Please contact the Archive for further information.

Conditions governing reproduction:

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Finding aids:

Detailed catalogue online at the: National Maritime Museum website .

Archival Information

Archival history:

Immediate source of acquisition:

The records of the company were presented to the Museum in 1978.

Allied Materials

Related material:

Publication note:

Description Notes

Archivist's note:
Edited by Sarah Drewery, Oct 2011.

Rules or conventions:
Compiled in compliance with General International Standard Archival Description, ISAD(G), second edition, 2000; National Council on Archives Rules for the Construction of Personal, Place and Corporate Names, 1997.

Date(s) of descriptions:

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